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Supervised Learning: Supervised learning is a machine learning technique where the algorithm learns from labeled training data. In supervised learning, the training data consists of input features and corresponding target labels or outputs. The algorithm learns a mapping function that can predict the correct output for new, unseen input data. The key steps in supervised learning include data preprocessing, model training, and model evaluation. Examples of supervised learning algorithms include linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, and support vector machines.
Unsupervised Learning: Unsupervised learning is a machine learning technique where the algorithm learns from unlabeled data, meaning the training data does not have predefined target labels. The goal of unsupervised learning is to discover patterns, relationships, and structures within the data. The algorithm explores the data to identify clusters, dimensions, or associations without any specific guidance. Unsupervised learning can be useful for tasks such as data exploration, clustering, anomaly detection, and dimensionality reduction. Examples of unsupervised learning algorithms include k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and association rule mining.
Reinforcement Learning: Reinforcement learning is a machine learning technique where an agent learns to make decisions and take actions in an environment to maximize a cumulative reward signal. Unlike supervised learning, reinforcement learning does not rely on labeled training data. Instead, the agent interacts with the environment, receives feedback in the form of rewards or penalties, and learns to optimize its behavior through trial and error. The agent learns a policy—a mapping from states to actions—that maximizes the expected long-term reward. Reinforcement learning is commonly used in scenarios with sequential decision-making, such as game playing, robotics, and autonomous systems. Examples of reinforcement learning algorithms include Q-learning, policy gradients, and deep Q-networks (DQN).
Each type of learning—supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning—serves different purposes and is applicable to various problem domains. Supervised learning is effective for tasks with labeled data, unsupervised learning is useful for exploring data patterns and structures, and reinforcement learning is suitable for problems involving sequential decision-making and optimizing long-term rewards.